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Soil Testing Lab Equipments
As Per IS: 7535-1986.
Plastic Limit Set
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-VII) ASTM D 427, BS:1377 AASHO 190.
Moisture contents at which soil has smallest plasticity is called limit. For determination purpose plastic limit is defined as the water content at which a soil will just to crumble when rolled into a thread of 3mm. dia.
Specifications: The complete set consists of one each:- 1. Glass plate 20cm x 115cm having ground ends and one side frosted., 2. Brass of stainless steel rod 3mm dia. x 150mm long., 3. Flexible spatula., 4. Set of 6 moisture containers. , 5. Porcelain basin 150mm dia., 6. Plastic wash bottle 500ml.
Shrinkage Limit Set
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-VII) ASTM D 427, BS:1377 AASHO 92.
Shrinkage Limit is the maximum water content at which a reduction in water content does not cause and appreciable reduction in volume of the soil mass. At shrinkage limit, on further reduction in water, air enters into the voids of soils and thus keeps the volume constant. The apparatus can be used to determine shrinkage limit and to calculate other shrinkage factors like shrinkage ratio, shrinkage index and volumetric shrinkage.
Specifications: Set consists of one each:- 1. Porcelain evaporating Dish., 2 Shrinkage Dish., 3 Glass Sup., 4 Perspex Plate with three metal prongs., 5 Perspex plate., 6 Flexible spatula., 7 Glass cylinder 25ml x 0.5ml, supplied
without mercury. Optional
accessories: Mercury supplied in bottle of 500 gms.
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-V)
For determining the Liquid Limit of soils. This is specially useful to obtain reliable and accurate results for those soils which have low plasticity index. The percentage moisture contents determined when cone with half angle of 15-30 minutes under a total sliding weight of 148gm penetrates 25 mm gives the Liquid Limit.
High Speed Stirrer
As Per IS: (PART-IV)
This is for mechanical analysis and also other Laboratory applications for stirring. Speed approximately 4000rpm under load, A dispersion cup is supported on a rest on the stand of the stirrer and has a removable baffle. For operation on 230-250 volts A.C. supplied without dispersion cup of baffle.
Liquid Limit Device IS: 2720 (PART V)
As Per IS: 9259, BS: 1377, AS:89.
Casagrande method in mechanical form is known as Liquid Limit Method and has been is use for soil mechanics for a number of years. The Liquid Limit data of soils is useful to correlate mechanical properties of soil, such as compressibility and lower shear strength. Liquid limit is the water content at which soil passes from zero strength to and infinitesimal strength, hence the true value of liquid limit cannot be determined. For determination purpose liquid limit is that water content at which a part of soil, cut by grove of standard dimensions, will flow together for a distance of 1.25cm under an impact of 25 blows in a standard liquid limit apparatus.The soil at the water content has some strength which is about 0.17 N/cm/sq.cm.(17gms/sq.cm.) At this water content soil just passes form liquid stage to plastic state
Specifications: It consists of a brass cup held on an adjustable bracket. The cup can be adjusted for a fall of 1cm and cam be raised and dropped on a rubber base of standard hardness by cam action. Complete with one casagrande grooving tool, one ASTM Grooving tool and a heigh gauge block (Type A of IS 9259)
Liquid Limit Device (With Counter)
Same as above but fitted with a counter to register the number of blows.
Liquid Limit Device (Motorized)
Same as above but fitted with a motor geared down to give approximately 120 r.p.m suitable for operation on 230Volts, single phase, 50 cycles, A.C. supply.
Spares: Casagrande grooving tool. ASTM Grooving tool, Height block, 1cm high.
Grain Size Analysis (Pipette Method)
As Per IS: 2720 (Part-IV) & BS: 1377.
This is for the determination of their sub sieves particle distribution in a soil sample by mechanical analysis. An analysis of this kind expresses quantitatively the proportions by weight of the various size of particles present in the soil. It is recommended as a standard procedure to use dispersion agent to avoid flocculation.
Specifications: The apparatus consists of a sliding panel which moves up and down by means of a screw allowing Anderson pipette fixed to it tube raised or lowered vertically. A sedimentation tube is held by a Laboratory clamp provided on the stand below the pipette. The depth of immersion is measured by a scale graduated in mm at the side of the sliding panel. Supplied complete with Anderson pipette 10ml. at eh side capacity made from glass, and a sedimentation tube also of glass of 500ml capacity and 50 Nos Test forms. Accessories & Spares: 1) Sedimentation pipette (Anderson pipette) 25ml., 2) Sedimentation tube 1000ml., 3) Sedimentation pipette 10ml., 4) Sedimentation tube 500 ml., 5) Test forms pad of 50.
Conventionally particle size distribution analysis is carried out using pipette and hydrometer methods. Whereas in hydrometer method it is possible to determine particle sized in the range 75 microns, the method involves computation and it is time consuming. The pipette method can be used for determining only the percentage of specific sizes less than 0.02, 0.006 and 0.002 mm as a percentage of total soil sample. The plummet balance method to determine sub sieve particle size for the entire range is very rapid and only manipulation of height of the balance, so that plummet sinks to the right depth is required. The percentage of soil suspension is directly indicated by a pointer over a graduated scale.
Specifications: A vertical rod is mounted on sturdy base having leveling screws. A pointer with steel pivots turns is jewel bearing and moves over a graduated scale. Scale graduations are marked 0-100% x 2%. To the other end of the pointer a plummet is hanged. Rack and pinion arrangement is provided on the vertical rod for adjusting the height. Supplied with a chart showing relationship is provided on the vertical rod for adjusting the height. Supplied with a chart showing relationship between "K" and temperature of suspension of soils of varying specific gravity from 2.4 to 2.8 to help in solving stroke's equation. Supplied complete with one Perspex plummet one measuring jar and one rider weight for zero adjustment and one rider weight for adjusting the pointer to 100%.
This cone is used to find out Viscosity of Bentinite slurry and like material. The Marsh Cone ix 6 inch in diameter at the top and 12 inch long, and tapers to join a tube 2 inch ling and 3/16 inch inside dia. The capacity of the funnel is 1500cc. Time in seconds required to flow out 1000 cc of slurry from cone is measured as funnel viscosity of the material.
Soil Hydromete 1
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-IV) & 3104.
Used for grain size analysis of soils where more than 10% of the material will pass through 75 microns I.S. sieve. Manufactured from clear transparent glass having uniform clarity throughout the upper end on which density scale is engraved. The scale range is 0.0995 to 1.030 density (gms/cc) at 270C. Smallest division on the scale is 0.0005.
Note: Hydrometer for other liquids also a avaiLable
Soil Hydromete 2
Sand Pouring Cylinder
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-XXVIII)
This apparatus is used for the in place determination, of the dry density of compact, fine and medium grained soils and for layers not exceeding 50cm thickness.
Specifications: The complete apparatus consists one each of: Small Sand Pouring cylinder, 3 liter capacity, fitted with conical funnel and shutter. Cylinder calibrating container, internal dia. 10 cm and internal depth 15cm, fitted with a flange, Metal tray, 31cm. square and 4 cm deep with a 10cm dia. hole in the centre.
Accessories: Metal tray, 30cm square and 4cm deep without hole. Test forms pad of 50. Note: Sand poring cylinder large as per IS 2720 (P-XXVII) also avaiLable.
As Per IS: 2720 (PART-XXIX)-1966
This is used for determination of in situ dry density of natural of compacted fine grained soil, free form aggregates. A cylindrical cutter is used to extract a sample of the soil with the help of a dolley and rammer. From the weight , density and the moisture and dry density of the soil is readly calculated.
Specifications: It consists one each of: Cylindrical core cutter made of steel, 127.3mm long and 100m internal diameter. Steel Dolley, 25mm high with a lip to enable it to be located on top of the core cutter. Rammer with detachable steel rod. Spare, Optional Extra and
Accessories: 1) Cylindrical core cutter 100mm I.D x 175mm long., 2) Cylindrical core cutter 100mm I.D. x 175mm long. 3) Cylindrical core cutter 100mm I.D x 175 mm ling., 4) Dolley., 5) Test form pad 50.
Harvard Miniature Compactor
This is for determining the moisture density relation of soils. In this apparatus, small quantity sample is compacted undez kneading action of the spring loaded tamper set either at 10kg or 20kg. As the sample required is very small, a number of tests can be carried out, each time taking a fresh sample. The time required for compaction is very much less. The mould can be inter changeably used with Miniature Field permeameter where permeability tests can be conducted at high pressures.
Miniature Field Permeameter
For determining the permeability characteristics of soils, solidified soils rock cores, high pressure permeability studies can be carried out. The complete outfit comprises:- Mould 50mm diameter x 100mm high and collar, top plate, Base Plate with recess for porous stone and porous stone indicator pipette, 6mm x 300mm x 300mm long. Reservoir tank fitted with 7kg/cm gauge, valves, flow control regulator and foot pump.
When compaction of soil in the field is done using rolling machines. It is important to know O.M.C. and M.D.D. values. Standard compaction test is used to determine is Laboratory Optimum Moisture Contents (O.M.S.) and Maximum Dry Density (M.D.D) for soils, which represents field samples. Compacted soils have increasing use in embankment of dams, highways, railways etc. In recent years in order to meet current heavy traffic on runways and highways. Heavy duty field compacting equipment has come into use and in view of reproducing greater densities, heavy compaction tests using heavy compaction apparatus have been developed.
Standard Compaction Test
As Per IS: 2720, (Part-VII)
The apparatus consists one each of Compaction Mould Gun Metal, 100mm I.D. x 127.3mm height x 1000 c. volume, complete with collar and base plate. Rammer 2.6kg x 310 mm controlled fall.
Heavy Compaction Test
As Per IS: 2720, (Part-VIII)
Instrument consists one each of: Compaction Mould, Gun metal, 150mm I.D x 127.3mm height volume 2250cc. complete with collar and base plate. Rammer 4.89kg x 450mm controlled fall for heavy compaction test according to IS 2720 (Part-VIII)
Note: Instead of Gun-metal moulds, Steel moulds are also avaiLable.